Profile 网络社会年会

第三届网络社会年会-智慧都市网络(IUF)报告人 | 克里斯·朱利安:公共研究:都市装置的公民器官

里斯·朱利安(Chris Julien),阿姆斯特丹(Waag)的研究总监。作为管理团队的一员,他负责阿姆斯特丹测量所的集体研究议题和研究方法。除此之外,他还是该机构的发言人之一,因此也维持着阿姆斯特丹测量所的国际研究网络。

他具备将哲学远景转化为具体项目的能力,这让他成为了该机构的核心组织者。长期关注学术和社会语境下的跨学科方法,形成了阿姆斯特丹测量所新的公共研究议题。其中,作为道德行动者的个人被置于整个社会创新的研究、设计和实施链的中心。

在克里斯到阿姆斯特丹测量所任职之前,他曾担任Studio 80基金会的财务总监,与人合作创办了新奇创意咨询公司(Novel Creative Consultancy),并研究了在FreedomLab工作的新方法。当时,他是创意产业基金NL的委员会成员,阿姆斯特丹的绿色左翼联盟(GroenLinks)艺术与文化委员会主席,经常在红灯广播电台播放他的POP CTRL show。他在乌特勒支大学(University of Utrecht)主修社会抗争研究和人权保障,还在阿姆斯特丹大学(University of Amsterdam)修读文化分析。

Chris Julien works as research director at Waag. As a member of the management team he is responsible for the collective research agenda and methodology of Waag. Besides this he is one of the spokespersons for the institution and as such maintains Waag’s international research network.
His ability to translate philosophical vistas into concrete projects makes him a core playmaker of the institution. A long-term focus on interdisciplinary approaches in academic and societal context shape the new Public Research agenda of Waag. In it, individuals as ethical actors are placed centre-stage throughout the entire chain of research, design and implementation of social innovation.
Before his role at Waag, Chris worked as finance director of the Studio 80 foundation, co-founded Novel Creative Consultancy and research new ways of working at FreedomLab. At this time he is a committee member at Creative Industries Fund NL, chairman of the GroenLinks committee on arts & culture in Amsterdam, and a regular fixture at Red Light Radio with his POP CTRL shows. He mastered in Conflict Studies and Human Rights at the University of Utrecht, as well as Cultural Analysis at the University of Amsterdam.

公共研究:都市装置的公民器官
Public Research: the civic organs of the urban apparatus

十多年来,阿姆斯特丹汎荷学社一直在科技和艺术的交叉口工作。它关注的是新兴技术作为社会变革工具,并以公平、开放和包容性的价值观为导向。汎荷学社的六十个思想家和制作人组成的专门团队授权人们通过技术成为活跃的公民。汎荷学社是一个独立的研究机构,与欧洲各地的基层和机构行动者合作。定义该组织的是一种对公共关注和公民积极参与新兴技术的共识。

传统范式创新将其理解为以基础学术研究为起点、以产业研究和初创企业为评价标准、通过新经济活动在社会中实施的一系列活动,而新经济活动被认为是产生社会效益的活动。在这个模式中,社会创新和研究的直接社会价值的作用有限。决定成功社会创新的关系是特定于公共领域的,并且不同于学术和市场行为者所采用的关系。

汎荷学社的实践被构建为公共研究——一个包括了进一步社会创新所需的适当规模和行动者的研究领域。它独立于市场和国家之外,把创新理解为技术和社会生态学领域相互关联的变化的过程。在政策层面上,四重螺旋的方法和相关的参与和共同创造的实践表明,研究方法仍然需要根本的转变。我们已经认识到,技术不是中立的,因此它的创新——在创造和接受方面——必须由公民共同组织。

在当代“智能”城市工作,这种“共同创造”的做法总是已经存在于居民的日常活动和谈判中,同时在关于城市的官方或政策的角度中又常常不存在。然而为了建设和谐、有弹性和繁荣的城市,需要有一个适当的框架来理解和允许生活的变化,从而在城市中发生形态多样的创新。这要求公民独立的“器官”出现,信任网络也要扎根。

在理解城市结构作为社会和物质关系的综合时,我们可能会想起米歇尔·福柯关于“部署”的概念,他在1977年的一次采访中对此进行了定义,正如乔治·阿甘本在他的《什么是装置》一书中所指出的。“(2016):

“一个完全异质的集合,包括话语、机构、建筑形式、管理决策、法律、行政措施、科学声明、哲学、道德和慈善主张……这个装置本身就是一个能够在这些元素之间建立的网络。 ”

这让我们把“器官”理解为连接和约束城市中的各种力量的权力关系,以及作为组成城市装置的工具。

信任网络

在我们的智能公民实验室(Smart Citizen Lab),我们致力于促进信任框架的发展,该框架使得别样的创新实践和知识在城市中出现。

今天我要详细谈论的案例是阿姆斯特丹之声。在这里,我们与草根组织一起工作,并与阿姆斯特丹市政府协作,建立一个去中心化的传感器网络,在人们的家里或者回家途中测量环境声音,创造一个超本地的和个人相关的对城市声音景观的理解——在一个市内可访问并由国家测量研究所校准的数据库中整理和分析这些数据。这项活动发展了五年多,可以看到一种新型的器官——一个公民与城市之间的“信任网络”——正在生长,允许对城市环境进行更微妙和更相关的感知和适应。

For over twenty years, Waag has operated at the intersection of science, technology and art. It focuses on emergent technologies as instruments of social change, guided by the values of fairness, openness and inclusivity. Waag’s dedicated team of sixty thinkers and makers empowers people to become active citizens through technology. Waag is an independent research organisation that works with grass roots and institutional actors across Europe. The organisation is defined by a shared attitude of public concern and civic activism towards emergent technologies.

The traditional paradigm innovation understands it as a chain of activities starting with fundamental academic research, valorised by industry research and start-ups and implemented in society through new economic activity, which is assumed to generate societal benefits. In this schema, there is a limited role for social innovation and direct societal valorisation of research. The relationships that determine successful social innovation are specific to the public sphere, and different than those employed by academic and market actors.

Waag’s practice is framed as public research, a research domain that encompasses appropriate scales and actors needed to further social innovation. Independent from the market and the state, it understands innovation as a proces of interrelated change in the technological and socio-ecological realms. On a policy level, the quadruple helix approach with associated participative and co-creative practices signals the fundamental shift still required in research methodology. We have come to understand that technology is not neutral, and therefore its innovation – in terms of creation and adoption – has to be co-organised by citizens.

Working in the contemporary, ‘SMART’ city, this practice of ‘co-creation’ is both always-already present in the daily activities and negotiations of its inhabitants, and at the same time often- absent from formal or policy perspectives on the city. Yet in order to achieve harmonious, resilient and thriving cities requires an adequate framework for understanding and allowing living change, and therefore pluriform innovation to occur in cities. This asks for both independent ‘organs’ of civic to emerge, as well as trust networks to take root.

In understanding the urban fabric as a composite of social and material relations, we might call to mind Michel Foucault’s notion of the dispositif, which he defines in an interview in 1977, as noted by Georgio Agamben in his “What is an Apparatus?” (2016):

“A thoroughly heterogeneous set consisting of discourses, institutions, architectural forms, regulatory decisions, laws, administrative measures, scientific statements, philosophical, moral and philanthropic propositions … The apparatus itself is the network that can be established between these elements.”

This allows us to understand ‘organs’ as the power relations that connect and bind the various forces in the city, and as instrumental in composing urban apparatuses.

Trust Networks

In our Smart Citizen Lab, we work to facilitate the growth of trust frameworks that allowing for alternative innovation practices and knowledges to emerge in the city.

The case I will elaborate on today is Amsterdam Sounds. Here we work together with grass- roots initiatives and in conjunction with Amsterdam Municipality to create a decentralised network of sensors in and on people’s homes that measure sounds of the environment, creating a hyper-local and personally relevant understanding of the soundscape of the city – collating and analysing these in a database that is accessible to the city and calibrated by the national institute for measurements. This activity, which developed over more than five years, sees a new type of organ, a ‘trust network’ growing between citizens and city, that allows for more delicate and relevant sensing of- and adapting to the urban environment.

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