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第四届网络社会年会-网民21报告人迈克尔·N·戈达德 | 沉浸式媒体、虚拟现实和视听媒体考古

迈克尔·N·戈达德博士是威斯敏斯特大学电影、电视和运动图像专业的准教授。他在国际电影、视听文化以及文化和媒体理论领域发表了众多的著作。同时他还是一位媒体理论家,尤其专注在媒体生态学、媒体考古学以及数字媒体领域。媒体生态学方面,戈达德博士与Jussi Parikka共同为《Fiberculture》杂志编辑之特刊“非自然生态学”收录了相关的方法学,并对该领域产生了重要影响。在媒体考古学领域,他最重要的贡献是由阿姆斯特丹大学出版社出版的专着《游击网络》(Guerrilla Networks,2018),这是他目前为止媒体考古学研究集大成之作。他的上一本书《不可能的制图》(2013)是关于导演劳尔·鲁伊斯的电影。此外,他还持续研究流行音乐的边缘团体,如The Fall、Throbbing Gristle和Laibach等乐队,并最终编辑了两本关于噪音的书:Reverberations(2012)和Resonances(2013)。他目前正在撰写有关英国后工业乐团Coil的书,以及进行有关沉浸式媒体和虚拟化的谱系学研究项目。

Dr Michael N. Goddard, is Reader in Film, Television and Moving Image at the University of Westminster. He has published widely on international cinema and audiovisual culture as well as cultural and media theory. He is also a media theorist, especially in the fields of media ecology and media archaeology, as well as in digital media. In terms of the former, this methodology informed the special “Unnatural Ecologies” issue of Fibreculture he co-edited with Jussi Parikka, which has been widely cited and has had a significant impact on the field. In media archaeology, his most significant contribution is the monograph, Guerrilla Networks (2018), the culmination of his media archaeological research to date, which was published by Amsterdam University Press. His previous book, Impossible Cartographies (2013) was on the cinema of Raúl Ruiz. He has also been doing research on the fringes of popular music focusing on groups such as The Fall, Throbbing Gristle and Laibach and culminating in editing two books on noise, Reverberations (2012) and Resonances (2013). He is currently working on a book on the British post-industrial group Coil, and beginning a new research project on genealogies of immersive media and virtuality.

报告摘要

本演讲将采用媒体考古学的方法,探讨虚拟现实和沉浸式媒体在当代的重现,将其作为一种循环现象嵌入到齐格弗里德·齐恩斯基称为“视听(Audiovision)”的更长的非线性叙述历史中。

当虚拟现实这一概念“第一次”出现在1990年时,这种说法是哲学上的,甚至是形而上的,无论多位作者以反乌托邦的批判眼光(见Kroker,1993)还是天真肯定的态度(见Rheingold,1991),虚拟现实在他们笔下都未失去潜力。将虚拟现实与哲学联系最紧密的作者或许属迈克尔·海姆,他的著作《虚拟现实的形而上学》(1993)将虚拟技术视为本体论机器,使原本仅存于哲学家想像中的经验模式得以实际设计。 引申马克思所论述的,哲学只能用来描述世界,虚拟现实设计师则为用户创造新的本体体验世界。当然,虚拟现实只是20世纪一系列沉浸式感知技术的最后一部分,它经历了电影、立体镜、3D和其他沉浸式媒体的所有技术性创新,其更早的历史可追溯到全景图,Viewmasters和其他装置,更进一步则可回到柏拉图洞穴的哲学体系中。更具体而言,虚拟现实起源于早在1960年代的视听运动图像与声音和计算之间的交汇,当时也有很多概念类似于扬布拉德称之为的“延展电影”(1970)。本演讲将探讨虚拟沉浸式技术的谱系考,将其作为实践美学模式的非线性考古学,这种模式带来了各种实际体验,包括感知转换和变形,使自己变成和他人并感受他人认知世界的习惯。比起一般将超越(transcendence)归功于1990年代打开纯粹内在(immanence)空间的沉浸式科技,并认为这些体验可以超越人体习惯的感觉,本演讲将指出,唯有通过创建没有器官的新身体,技术修复的纯粹内在性的“新肉体”才能达到那样的境地。演讲将把当代VR置于虚拟和沉浸式技术的非线性发展的更悠久和深厚的历史中,这种历史至少可以追溯到1960年代的延展电影,并探索其在当前和未来的艺术、社会和主体潜能。

Immersive Media, Virtual Reality and the Media Archaeology of Audiovision

This talk will take a media archaeological approach to the contemporary re-emergence of virtual reality and immersive media as a cyclical phenomenon embedded in much longer non-linear histories of what Siegfried Zielinski has called ‘Audiovision.’

 When virtual reality “first” appeared on the scene in the 1990s, it is philosophical and even metaphysical, potentials were not lost on several authors whether they perceived them in largely dystopian terms (see Kroker 1993) or naively affirmative ones (see Rheingold 1991). Perhaps the author who most intimately connected virtual reality and philosophy was Michael Heim, whose work the Metaphysics of Virtual Reality (1993)situated technologies of the virtual as ontological machinery, enabling the practical design of modes of experience that philosophers had hitherto only been able to imagine; to paraphrase Marx, where philosophy had only been able to describe the world, virtual reality designers were making new worlds of ontological experience available to their users. Of course, Virtual Reality is only the last of a long line of immersive technologies of perception in the twentieth century, passing through all the technological innovations of cinema, stereoscopy, 3D and other immersive media whose deeper history dates back to panoramas, Viewmasters, and other devices, and further to such philosophical machineries as Plato’s cave. More specifically, virtual reality emerges out of an intersection between audiovisual moving images and sounds and computing, that began as early as the 1960s, as so many varieties of what Gene Youngblood called “Expanded Cinema”(1970). This paper will explore these genealogies of virtually immersive technologies as non-linear archaeology of modes of practical aesthetics, enabling concrete experiences of perceptual transformation and metamorphosis, a becoming other to oneself and one’s habits of perceiving and being in the world. It will argue that rather than the transcendence often attributed to these experiences in the 1990s that immersive technologies of the virtual open up space of pure immanence and becoming which may exceed the sensoria of habitually lived bodies, but only by creating a new body without organs, a ‘new flesh’ of technologically remediated pure immanence. As such it will situate contemporary VR in longer and buried histories of the non-linear development of virtual and immersive technologies going back at least to 1960s expanded cinema, and explore its artistic, social and subjective potentialities in the present and future.

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