Profile 网络社会年会

第三届网络社会年会-智慧都市网络(IUF)报告人 | 奈德·罗斯特:媒体理论,自动化与数据的地缘政治

德·罗斯特(Ned Rossiter)是一位媒体理论家,以网络文化、文化工人的政治、后勤媒体和数据政治的研究著称。西悉尼大学通讯学教授,联合受聘于文化与社会研究所以及人文与传播艺术学院。著有《组织化的网络:媒体理论、创意劳工和新机构》(Organized Networks: Media Theory, Creative Labour, New Institutions)(2006)和《软件、基础设施、劳动:关于后勤噩梦的媒体理论》( Software, Infrastructure, Labor: A Media Theory of Logistical Nightmares)(2016),与希尔特·洛文克(Geert Lovink)合著《社交媒体后的组织》(Organization after Social Media) (2018)。目前正在与索恩克·采勒(Soenke Zehle)合著《对数码对象的经验:思辨熵学家的急件》(The Experience of Digital Objects: Dispatches from a Speculative Entropologist)。

Ned Rossiter is a media theorist noted for his research on network cultures, the politics of cultural labour, logistical media and data politics. Rossiter is Professor of Communication at Western Sydney University, where he holds joint appointments in the Institute for Culture and Society and the School of Humanities and Communication Arts. Rossiter is the author of Organized Networks: Media Theory, Creative Labour, New Institutions (2006), Software, Infrastructure, Labor: A Media Theory of Logistical Nightmares (2016) and (with Geert Lovink) Organization after Social Media (2018). He is currently writing a book with Soenke Zehle called The Experience of Digital Objects: Dispatches from a Speculative Entropologist.


 

媒体理论,自动化与数据的地缘政治
Media Theory, Automation and the Geopolitics of Data

据集(Datasets)定义了我们的处境。这一后基特勒(post-Kittlerian)的断言指出,为了训练软件去应对受控环境中的变量,海量数据被堆积起来。例如,任何特定省份或国家的交规数据,都只是生产自动载具所需的众多运作参数中的一个范畴。反过来,由于程序要处理的是行驶时意外闯到车前的东西,所以对偶发编程这件事又得针对特定文化情境。儿童、老人、慢跑的人、小狗、球类或任何其他可能造成交通事故的东西,会依不同的文化与社会习俗而不同。西方与北欧市民们循规蹈矩的倾向与罗马繁忙街道上行人们的举止截然不同,与加尔各答或雅加达的情况就更是对比强烈了。换言之,这个处境已然成了一个试验台,来测试这不易被转译的世界。

优化、控制、度量器、仪表、预测、先行购买、任务、列表、评级、它动化(heteromation)、交易、原始数据、自律性、适用性、统计归纳、复制。从这些类型学、范畴、行为、惯例和程序里,可以汇编出一套内在于AI和机器学习的技术的媒体理论。在设定关于自动化技术的媒体理论的坐标和轮廓的工作中,本文意在辨明软件工程中的一种地理文化编码如何揭示了技术产业中的地缘政治。无论是IBM的“爱因斯坦” https://www.salesforce.com/products/einstein/overview/ 、客户关系管理平台或伊龙·马斯克(Elon Musk)对自动驾驶汽车的投资,其编入系统的运作参数都难免受到自身文化背景的影响。例如腾讯和阿里巴巴公司的自动客服技术的文化初始设定就不同于源自硅谷的平台资本主义。

总之,数据经济的地缘政治预示着一场全球范围的地域竞争。对此,源于平台架构的运作逻辑的概念生产便可为我们提供一些解释经验世界的模型。媒体理论不必乞灵于STS(科学、技术、社会)的民族志或相关领域,因为只要质问权力并找到实例,媒体理论就能让我们理解变幻莫测的自动化世界。

Datasets define our situation. Such a post-Kittlerian dictum speaks to the massive accumulation of data required to train software to respond to variables within controlled environments. Data on legislation related to driving law within any particular province or state, for instance, fulfils just one category in the parameters of operation necessary for the production of autonomous vehicles. The programming of contingency as it relates to unforeseen objects launching unexpectedly in front of a moving car is again specific to cultural situations. Children, elderly people, a jogger, dogs, balls, or any other object or thing moving in ways that could produce an accident are going to vary according to cultural and social habits. The rule-bound tendencies of urban populations in western and northern Europe are dramatically different from the behaviour of pedestrians on the busy streets of Rome let alone somewhere like Kolkata or Jakarta. The situation, in other words, has become the testbed for a world not easily translatable.

Optimization, control, metrics, dashboards, prediction, pre-emption, tasks, lists, ranking, heteromation, transaction, raw data, autonomy, adaptivity, statistical induction, replication. These are some of the many typologies, categories, actions, routines and processes from which to compile a media theory immanent to the technics of artificial intelligence and machine learning. In setting out the coordinates and contours of a media theory attentive to technologies of automation, my aim in this paper is to discern how a geocultural encoding within software engineering indexes an optic onto the geopolitics of the tech industry. Whether it is IBM’s Salesforce Einstein, a customer relationship management platform, or Elon Musk’s investment in autonomous cars, the parameters of operation coded into these systems are informed by the cultures from which they emerge. Automated customer service technologies from companies such as TenCent and Alibaba hold default cultural settings that are not equivalent to the platform capitalism stemming from Silicon Valley.

In short, the geopolitics of data economies signals an emergent contest of territoriality on a planetary scale. The production of concepts derived from the operational logic of platform architectures can provide explanatory models of the empirical world. Media theory need not be obliged or beholden to the ethnographic methods of STS and cognate fields since it is through the question and instantiation of power that media theory can make intelligible the variational conditions of automated worlds.

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